README.TXT Driver File Contents (

			User's Guide

      For Intel, AMD, Fujitsu, M-Systems and compatible
		     Linear Flash Cards


   This document is for information only and is subject to
   change without prior notice. No part of this document
   may be reproduced, transmitted, transcribed, stored in a
   retrieval system, or translated into any language or
   computer language, in any form or by any means,
   electronic, mechanical, magnetic, optical, chemical,
   manual, or otherwise, without the prior written consent
   of M-Systems Flash Disk Pioneers Ltd.
   (c) Copyright 1995-1997 M-Systems Flash Disk Pioneers Ltd.

   Corporate Headquarters	 North American Headquarters

   M-Systems Ltd.		 M-Systems Inc.
   Atidim Industrial Park	 39899 Ballentne Drive
   P.O.B. 58036 		 Suite 335
   Tel-Aviv 61580		 Newark, CA 94560
   Israel			 USA

   Tel: +972-3-647-7776 	 Tel: (510) 413-5950
   Fax: +972-3-647-6668 	 Fax: (510) 413-5980

   TrueFFS is a registered trade mark of M-Systems Ltd.
   The TrueFFS software is protected by US Patent no. 5404485.
   All other trade marks, service marks, trade names are the
   property of their respective owners.

	     TrueFFS for Windows-95 User's Guide

1.1   Introduction

   TrueFFS-95 is TrueFFS for Microsoft's Windows-95: A new
   version of M-Systems' TrueFFS Flash File System
   supporting the FTL standard data format.
    In keeping with the spirit of Windows 95, TrueFFS
   breaks all ties with  real-mode DOS, and is a true 32-
   bit protected mode VxD. TrueFFS-95 works in
   coordination with the protected-mode Card Services &
   Socket Services, with the plug-and-play configuration
   manager and with the Windows-95 I/O Supervisor.
   To TrueFFS for Windows-95 are attached several
   utilities: TFORMAT to format Flash cards, and TCHECK to
   verify and correct the TrueFFS format.
   At installation time, these utilities are copied to your
   \WINDOWS\TFFS95 directory.
   The utilities are console applications, which means that
   they have the general appearance of DOS commands, and
   will run in what appears to be a DOS box (although in
   fact they are Win-32 applications).

1.2   Requirements & Compatibility

   A PCMCIA adapter that is supported by Windows-95 Card &
   Socket Services. It is assumed that the PCMCIA adapter
   was properly configured and that Windows-95 Card
   Services is accessing PC cards on it.

   TrueFFS-95 works with:
    ú	Intel Series-2 PC cards
 ú   Intel Series-2+ PC cards
 ú   Intel Value-100 PC cards
 ú   Intel miniature cards
 ú   AMD Series-D PC cards
 ú   AMD miniature cards
 ú   Fujitsu Series-D PC cards
 ú   Fujitsu miniature cards
 ú   M-Systems D-Series, V-Series & S-Series PC cards
 ú   M-Systems Series-2000 PC cards

   This version of TrueFFS-95 is compatible with all
   Windows-95 retail releases, OEM service releases and
   beta releases dated Feb 97 or earlier.

1.3   Installation

   Follow these steps to install TrueFFS/95:
   1. If you have not yet read the "Requirements" section
      above,   please read them now.
   2. Is your PCMCIA socket installed ? If not, or you do not
      know, refer to details on PCMCIA Socket installation in this
      section below.
   3. Insert the disk with TrueFFS installation files into a
   4. Remove any Flash memory cards from the PCMCIA slots.
   5. From the Windows-95 display, open "My Computer" on your
      desktop or open the Windows Explorer.
   6. Open the disk with TrueFFS installation files.
   7. Click with the right mouse button on the file Trueffs.inf.
      You will see a menu.
   8. In the menu choose "Install" and click on it.
   9. After  Windows-95 finishes copying installation files you
      are ready to work with Flash Memory Cards.

1.4   Installing the PCMCIA Socket

   To find out if your PCMCIA Socket is installed:
   1.	From the Windows-95 display, choose "Start", then
      "Settings", then "Control Panel".
   2.	Open "System".
   3.	Click on "Device Manager".
   4.	Scan the list of devices class for "PCMCIA socket". If
      you find it, open it (click on +). It should contain at
      least one line. If you do not find it, or it contains no
      lines, your PCMCIA socket is not installed.

   If your PCMCIA Socket is not installed, but the actual
   PCMCIA hardware exists on your system, proceed to
   install it:
   1.	From the Windows-95 display, choose "Start", then
      "Settings", then "Control Panel".
   2.	Open "Add New Hardware".
   3.	Click "Next".
   4.	If the "Add new hardware wizard" suggests that Windows
      look for your new hardware, click on the "No" button and
      then click "Next".
   5.	Choose "PCMCIA Socket" and click "Next".
   6.	Choose from the list of known sockets, or click "Have
      Disk" as appropriate to the PCMCIA hardware installed.

1.5   Removing installed components

   Follow these steps to uninstall TrueFFS/95:
   1. From the Windows-95 display choose "Start", then "Settings",
      then "Control Panel".
   2. Open "Add/Remove Programs". You will see the list of the software
      that can be automatically removed by Windows.
   3. Select "M-Systems TrueFFS driver" from the list and click "Add/Remove".
   4. Windows-95 will remove all installed components.

1.6   TFORMAT - The TrueFFS Format Utility

   Before TrueFFS can access a Flash medium, the medium
   must be formatted, just as a floppy disk must be
   formatted. Formatting initializes the medium and writes
   to it a new and empty DOS file system. When formatting
   is complete, the medium contains only a root directory.
   The DOS FORMAT command cannot be used for formatting
   Flash media driven by TrueFFS.
   The medium may be formatted more than once. However, all
   data on the medium is destroyed each time it is
   formatted. When reformatting, the boot-image is retained
   by default, although it may be deleted or reallocated by
   various TFORMAT options.
		       The syntax of the TFORMAT command is:

   TFORMAT  { drive-letter }
      [ /S:boot-image-file-name ]
      [ /S:drive-letter:]
      [ /S:! ]
      [ /S:* ]
      [ /BOOTSIZE:boot-image-size ]
      [ /USE:nnn ]
      [ /LOWMEM:size ]
      [ /LABEL:label ]
      [ /DOSVER:dos-major-version ]
      [ /SIZE:size ]
      [ /SPARE:n ]
      [ /Y ]

       Note   An equal sign (=) may be used wherever a
	       colon (:) is required.
	       TFORMAT	E:
   All sizes specified in TFORMAT options are in bytes if
   specified as simple numbers, in KBytes if specified with
   the suffix K, or in megabytes if specified with the
   suffix M.

   The TFORMAT options are:
   drive-letter     DOS drive letter of the TrueFFS drive.
   /S:boot-image-file-name			 Create a
		     boot-image partition with a boot-image
		     copied from the file specified. The
		     partition size will be the smallest
		     that may contain the file contents,
		     unless overridden by the /BOOTSIZE
		     parameter described below.
   /S:drive-letter: Create a boot-image partition, with a
		     boot-image copied from a memory card
		     residing on a different TrueFFS drive.
		     The amount copied from the socket must
		     be specified by the /BOOTSIZE
		     parameter. The partition size will be
		     the smallest that may contain the boot-
		     This variation of the /S parameter is
		     useful to create boot-images which are
		     clones of another memory card.
   /S:! 	    Do not create a boot-image partition.
		     This option is necessary if, upon
		     reformatting, an existing boot-image
		     partition is to be deleted.
   /S:* 	    Retain the previous boot-image
		     partition. This is the default action.
		     If no boot-image existed previously,
		     this option acts like the /S:0
   /BOOTSIZE:boot-image-size			 The size
		     of the boot-image partition in bytes.
		     This parameter must be specified when
		     copying a boot-image from another
		     socket. Otherwise it is defaulted as
		       /S:file-name   Number of bytes in the
						 /S:!	   0
				/S:*	  Old partition size
   /USE:nnn	    Percentage of available space on the
		     Flash medium to be used for file
		     storage. nnn can be any number from 1
		     to 100. Default is 99 (99%).
		     The value of this option may affect
		     the write performance of TrueFFS. For
		     more details, see Performance
		     Considerations, later in this manual.
   /LOWMEM:size     The low-memory part of the TrueFFS DOS
		     medium may be handled using a faster
		     access mechanism than the rest of the
		     Since the FAT and root directory
		     reside in low sector numbers, this may
		     improve performance. However, this
		     option has an overhead in TrueFFS
		     memory requirements.
		     For more details, see Performance
		     Considerations, later in this manual.
		     The default is 64 KBytes. In
		     principle, it is possible to specify a
		     size that will span the entire medium,
		     if the memory required to handle this
		     is available.
   /SIZE:size	    The size of the Flash medium to be
		     formatted (including the boot-image).
		     By default the entire medium is
		     formatted by TFORMAT. This option may
		     be used to limit the formatted size to
		     a smaller size.
		     This option is useful if the memory
		     card will be transported to a machine
		     that is physically able to address
		     only a part of Flash memory.
   /LABEL:label     A string to be used as the DOS label
		     of the formatted medium.
   /DOSVER:dos-major-version			 Format for
		     a target system running the specified
		     DOS version. The default is the
		     current DOS version (the one on which
		     TFORMAT is executed). E.g. /DOSVER:3
		     formats for DOS 3.x. Valid values are
		     1 to 6.
   /SPARE:n	    Leave n Flash erase units as spare
		     units for garbage collection. The
		     default is 1. At least one unit should
		     be specified for the Flash medium to
		     operate as a true read-write device.
		     More than one spare unit may be
		     specified to format media that have
		     bad Flash units. In such a case the
		     number of spare units should exceed
		     the number of bad units by at least 1.
		     It is also possible to specify more
		     than one spare unit in anticipation of
		     Flash units becoming bad in the
		     A value of 0 spare units may be
		     specified to create a WORM  (Write-
		     Once-Read-Many) disk. When formatting
		     with this option, the Flash medium can
		     be written once only, after which it
		     will become a read-only medium.
		     TrueFFS will report that the medium is
		     write-protected when space for writing
		     is exhausted. This option provides
		     very limited functionality, and should
		     not be used except in special cases.
		     The option has the advantage of
		     lowering the formatting overhead of
		     TrueFFS, since a spare Flash erase
		     zone is not needed for space
   /Y		    Do not pause for confirmation before
		     beginning to format.

1.7  TCHECK - Format Verification Utility

   The TCHECK utility is used to verify the underlying
   TrueFFS format and, optionally, to correct formatting
   inconsistencies. TCHECK is comparable to the SCANDISK
   program or the Norton Disk Doctor, which do the same for
   the DOS FAT format.
   You may run SCANDISK or a Disk Doctor on a TrueFFS
   drive, just as you may for any other standard DOS drive.
   These utilities, however, will diagnose and fix DOS
   errors. The TrueFFS format is transparent to them, as it
   is to you.
   The syntax of the TCHECK command is as follows:
       TCHECK  { drive-letter }  [ /F ]

   For example,
       TCHECK  D:

   The TCHECK options are:
   drive-letter DOS drive letter of the TrueFFS drive.
   /F		Attempt to fix inconsistencies when they
		 are found. The default is not to fix, but
		 only to report errors.

   TCHECK performs the following consistency scans of the
   TrueFFS format:
      It checks that the spare transfer units are
       erasable. An error indicates that your system's
       power supply to the Flash medium is insufficient, or
       that the Flash unit involved is faulty.
      If there is no problem in power supply, and all
       transfer units are no longer erasable, the medium
       should be reformatted with a larger value of the
       /SPARE parameter. To do this without losing data,
       download all files on the TrueFFS medium to a backup
       medium, reformat with the new /SPARE value, and then
       reload all files from the backup medium.
      Logical-to-virtual scan of the format tables.
      Logical-to-virtual errors are usually not serious,
       and do not indicate damage to user data, unless they
       occur often and in large numbers. They are usually
       the result of occasional power failures or Flash
       hardware failure. Fixing them will usually result in
       regaining a sector that was inaccessible.
      Virtual-to-logical scan of the format tables.
      Virtual-to-logical errors will never occur unless
       there is a serious malfunction in TrueFFS operation,
       Socket Services operation, or hardware. Although
       such errors can be fixed by TCHECK, such fixes will
       often not prevent loss of user data.

Download Driver Pack

How To Update Drivers Manually

After your driver has been downloaded, follow these simple steps to install it.

  • Expand the archive file (if the download file is in zip or rar format).

  • If the expanded file has an .exe extension, double click it and follow the installation instructions.

  • Otherwise, open Device Manager by right-clicking the Start menu and selecting Device Manager.

  • Find the device and model you want to update in the device list.

  • Double-click on it to open the Properties dialog box.

  • From the Properties dialog box, select the Driver tab.

  • Click the Update Driver button, then follow the instructions.

Very important: You must reboot your system to ensure that any driver updates have taken effect.

For more help, visit our Driver Support section for step-by-step videos on how to install drivers for every file type.

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